07795437651

©2019 by Inviting to God. Proudly created with Wix.com

  • Owner

Human Rights

Updated: Oct 11, 2019


In the name of Allah. Most Gracious, Ever Merciful

Human Rights Violations:

There are rights upon us of our Creator (Huqooqullaah) and also rights of humans (Huqooqul Ibaad). There is an urgent need for Muslims with a conscience to form a global Muslim human rights organisation to raise issues of concern in the whole world, but giving a priority to highlighting and putting an end to all the injustices and/or human rights violations within the 'muslim world' itself, at least to start off with, until the situation becomes satisfactory. The following two verses are relevant in this regard: 

[3:111] You are the best people raised for the good of mankind; you enjoin what is good and forbid evil, and believe in Allah ... [2:143] And thus have We made you a Community of the middle way, that you may be witnesses over the people and the Messenger of Allah may be a witness over you. ... In the first verse above, enjoining good and forbidding evil is mentioned before 'belief in Allah'. How can we become 'Witnesses' over people when they are witnessing our atrocities against them as well as against 'our own', as noted in the websites given below?

https://aclj.org/persecuted-church/the-increased-persecution-of-christians-around-the-world-this-christmas-is-shocking

https://www.reuters.com/article/us-religion-christianity-persecution-idUSBRE9070TB20130108

https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/comment/christians-the-worlds-most-persecuted-people-9630774.html

Among them are a people concerning whom Muslims are informed:

[5:82] And thou shalt assuredly find those who say, ‘We are Christians,’ to be the nearest of them in love to the believers. That is because amongst them are savants and monks and because they are not proud.


If they are nearest to Muslims in love, why don't we care for them in the least? We are also informed:


[57:27] Then We caused Our Messengers to follow in their footsteps; and We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow them, and We gave him the Gospel. And We placed in the hearts of those who accepted him compassion and mercy ...

We are informed that Allah placed compassion and mercy within their hearts, yet why is it that some muslims don't appear to have any compassion and mercy for them? How can this state of affairs be acceptable in any way shape or form?

When 'muslims' around the world try to engage in 'dawah' to our christian friends, and others, what is it we are inviting them to? To become like us, a people with an apparent careless disregard for human rights? People who don't do much, or perhaps even anything, at least nothing effective to my knowledge, to prevent our own so-called 'muslim brethren' from their manifest tyranny and oppression? Instead of spending time on 'dawah', would it not be better to get one's own house in order first? And christians are not subjected to persecution by muslim hands alone, as shown on the following site:

https://www.christianpersecution.com/news/

Ahmadi Muslims were taught:

“The principle to which we adhere is that we have kindness at heart for the whole of mankind. If anyone sees the house of a Hindu neighbour on fire and does not come forward to help extinguish the fire, most truly I declare that he does not belong to me. If anyone of my followers, having seen someone attempting to murder a Christian does not endeavour to save him, I most truly declare that he does not belong to us. … I love mankind with the love that a compassionate mother has for her children; even more so.”  (Siraj-e-Muneer p. 28; Ruhani Khazain Vol 12)

It is the duty of true Muslims to call for an end to persecution wherever it occurs in the world, against anyone. Here is a beneficial guide on 'Islam and Human Rights':

https://www.alislam.org/library/book/islam-human-rights/ When we don't follow the principles of Islam ourselves, and have practically abdandoned the Qur'an, what is the point and purpose of our effort to do 'dawah' or 'tabligh' to others, who may be better than us in various ways? It won't be a sin for those 'muslims' who have tv channels at their disposal to educate their viewers on human rights and wrongs occurring in the world, admonishing fellow 'muslims' first. It is better than mainly criticising other media and condemning non-muslims for being the ones to supply weapons to 'muslims'. If there wasn't such a high demand from 'muslims' for those weapons in the first place, companies supplying such weapons might soon cease to exist, InshaAllaah.  Child Abuse: 

I offered the following advise in an email to ahmadis in October 2010: 

"I would therefore suggest 'Humanity First' to expand and make an association with Human Rights organisations ...

This is a serious suggestion that Humanity First should also venture into the field of human rights, prevention of cruelty, and promotion of kindness, women's rights organisations etc., and think of expanding to do the sort of work done by Amnesty International in a much better way. 

The teachings of the Qur'an, the example of Rahmatulil Aalameen, and the writings of the Promised Messiah a.s. set a higher example of human rights and moral values for us." In another email soon after, I wrote to a wider list including many ahmadi officials.  "I would like to recommend that the scope of 'Humanity First' be widened to include Human Rights issues which are covered by organisations such as the NSPCC, Amnesty, Women's Rights Organisations etc." 

However, sadly, there has been no positive response from ahmadis in general to this urgent need of actively promoting human rights among muslims, as of yet. It doesn't necessarily have to be done by 'humanity first'. A separate 'human rights' organisation can be set up. Either way, the need for it has become even more urgent 8 years or so after making the suggestion. 

-------------------------------

My recommendation above was in response to an email sent to a mailing list to which I had just been added (perhaps merely to share the cruel joke with me, as it was the first email I received from the list, and I was subsequently removed from the list after a few email exchanges on the cruel joke), entitled 'Children Discipline'. It was sent to a mailing list which included some 'senior' and 'prominent' ahmadis, one of whom, a 'senior missionary', had shared a cruel and insensitive joke on child abuse with other members on the list, viz:

https://www.sparkpeople.com/mypage_public_journal_individual.asp?blog_id=4997526

I responded as follows with gentle advice (I have tried to withhold personal information):  ----------------------------------- Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem. 

My Dear Ahmadi Brethren, 

Assalaamu 'alaikum w w 

I hope and pray to Allah Ta'aala that you are all in the very best of health and spirits, Ameen. 

With regards to the tyrannous method of torture depicted, let us pause for a moment and reflect on what would become of the manner of fulfilment of the Qur'anic supplication: 

 رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيٰنِىْ صَغِيْرًاؕ‏

Rabbir-hamhumaa KAMAAA rabbayaani sagheera. 

i.e. Lord, have mercy on them IN LIKE MANNER as they were (merciful) to me during my upbringing as a child. [17:25] ?

Also reflect on the following aayaat: 

[26:19] قَالَ اَلَمْ نُرَبِّكَ فِيْنَا وَلِيْدًا وَّلَبِثْتَ فِيْنَا مِنْ عُمُرِكَ سِنِيْنَۙ‏

[26:19] Pharaoh said, ‘Did we not bring you up among us as a child? And you didst stay among us many years of your life.

وَتِلْكَ نِعْمَةٌ تَمُنُّهَا عَلَىَّ اَنْ عَبَّدتَّ بَنِىْۤ اِسْرآءِيْلَ

[26:23] (Moses a.s. said) ‘And this is the favour for which you taunt me; that you have enslaved the children of Israel.’

Now consider whether cruel words and wicked deeds reinforce favours, or wipe them out. The principle can be derived upon reflection on the following aayah: 

[2:265] يٰۤاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْا لَا تُبْطِلُوْا صَدَقٰتِكُمْ بِالْمَنِّ وَالْاَذٰىۙ كَالَّذِىْ يُنْفِقُ مَالَهٗ رِئَآءَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّٰهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْاٰخِرِ‌ؕ فَمَثَلُهٗ كَمَثَلِ صَفْوَانٍ عَلَيْهِ تُرَابٌ فَاَصَابَهٗ وَابِلٌ فَتَرَكَهٗ صَلْدًا‌ؕ لَا يَقْدِرُوْنَ عَلٰى شَىْءٍ مِّمَّا كَسَبُوْا‌ؕ وَاللّٰهُ لَا يَهْدِىْ الْقَوْمَ الْـكٰفِرِيْنَ‏

[2:265] O ye who believe! render not vain your alms by taunt and injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he believes not in Allah and the Last Day. His case is like the case of a smooth rock covered with earth, on which heavy rain falls, leaving it bare, smooth and hard. They shall not secure aught of what they earn. And Allah guides not the disbelieving people.

Such a stone-hearted attitude would render vain the good charity work done by some sincere Ahmadis via marathon walks and humanity first etc. 

As ...(one) ... who endeavours to spread the Ahmadi Muslim spirit of 'love for all, hatred for none' around the world, I would advise my brothers and sisters to refrain from inadvertently spreading such hard-hearted notions albeit in the guise of jokes. 

A Muslim is forbidden to consume the flesh of swine, and a swine is interpreted in Islamic literature as: 

"It stands for a man of great pomp and show but with his inside full of wickedness and his religious condition, very bad." 

[Reference: 'Interpretation of Dreams by Imam Muhammad bin Sirin', Edited by M. A. Shahid, Translated by Shakil A. Monir, Published by Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at Nigeria, Recent Indexed Edition, p. 99]  

Instead of sharing jokes illustrating the sort of hateful wickedness which hardline anti-Ahmadiyya Mullahs would savour and relish, I would advise noble Ahmadis to wisely speak out against any the poisoning of our spiritual diet with such Nazi notions. 

Incidentally, the interpretation of an aeroplane in a dream is a spiritual community, and the interpretation of a window is 'access to inside information'. Yet we complain that anti-Ahmadi mullahs who steer Muslims astray, promote the boycott of Ahmadis [and boycott is a form of qatl or murder]; so we should do our best not to become like them. 

An Ahmadi who converted many years ago recently said to me with agony that we have become like a sieve, with new Ahmadis entering from one door and leaving from the other. 

I am also concerned that the ... Muslim ... who became an Ahmadi ... might turn away from the Jama'at after finding a lack of resistance amongst Ahmadis to such corrupt and unIslamic notions of tarbiyyah. Hadhrat Masih al Maoud a.s. considered it a form of shirrk to try to make a child conform by means of harshness, and advised that it was better and more effective to supplicate for one's progeny, as instructed in the Holy Qur'an. 

In the booklet al-Wasiyyat, in which he prepares Ahmadis for various forms of 'life after death', he advises us to promote the ideals of the Jama'at always with softness, and to WORK WITH one another harmoniously. This attitude of co-operating harmoniously with one another in a gentle manner would WORK WITH truly spiritual grandkids in a much better and lasting way than the mullahism which is being promoted below. 

So which 'language' is being promoted in this so-called 'joke'? It is certainly not the teaching or language of the Qur'an [Arabic] It is more like the medieval mind-set 'Afghani' language which led to the stoning to death of Sahibzada Abdul Lateef Shaheed r.a. over differences of opinion in matters of religious understanding. And religious history, which I need not remind us of, is full of such crimes against humanity. 

I have been doing tabligh since I was a student at university in the late 80's, and I remember recommending to rashed sahib at the time to especially emphasise the spirit of 'Love For All Hatred For None' in our Tabligh. The onslaught against Islam these days is focused on the ignorance and neglect of basic human rights in Muslim thought and deed. Thus, I would reiterate my recommendation of promoting the spirit of 'Love For All Hatred For None' even more strongly than before. 

I hope and pray that all sincere Ahmadi Muslims would reflect upon and accept my advice in it's real spirit, Ameen. 

Jazakumullah Khayr wa Ahsanul Jazaa. 

'Love for All Hatred For None'. 

Wassalaam w w,  ------------------------------- The first email response I received was from a senior official who simply wrote: 

"This seems to have been sent to me in error."  --------------------------------------- I responded quoting a poem on child-rearing, entitled "Children Learn What They Live", as follows: 

"Then this one is being sent in surprise. Being ... I would have expected you to express your disapproval of such ideas. I put forward words of wisdom from the Word of Allah the Most Wise which show us that such notions are opposed to Islamic values. And the Holy Prophet s.a. (is reported to have) said: 

al hikmatu dallatul Mu'mini fa haythu wajadaha fa huwa ahaqqu biha. 

i.e. the (word of) wisdom is the lost property of a believer, so wherever he finds it, he is most entitled to [take/adopt] it. [Tirmidhi] 

So, if religious wisdom does not stir a person's mind to abhorrence of cruelty, perhaps worldly wisdom might, viz: 

> If a Child Lives with Criticism  >  >  > A poem by Dorothy Law Nolte Ph.D.(1924 - 2005), that was crafted on deadline  > for a Torrance newspaper in 1954 became -- without her knowledge -- a  > child-rearing anthem that parents posted on refrigerators around the world. >  > If children live with criticism, they learn to condemn > If children live with hostility, they learn to fight > If children live with fear, they learn to be apprehensive  > If children live with pity, they learn to feel sorry for themselves > If children live with ridicule, they learn to be shy > If children live with jealousy, they learn what to envy > If children live with shame, they learn to feel guilty > If children live with tolerance, they learn to be patient > If children live with encouragement, they learn to be confident > If children live with praise, they learn to appreciate > If children live with approval, they learn to like themselves > If children live with acceptance, they learn to find love in the world > If children live with recognition, they learn to have a goal > If children live with sharing, they learn to be generous > If children live with honesty & fairness, they learn what truth & justice are > If children live with security, they learn to have faith in themselves and in > those around them > If children live with friendliness, they learn that the world is a nice place > in which to live > If children live with serenity, they learn to have peace of mind.  >  > http://www.teacherweb.com/NC/WilliamsTownshipElementary/CheriBarkley/IfAChildLivesWith.htm

Some people might say she was a Christian, which is correct, but the reality is that she was countering the corruption of 'spare the rod and spoil the child' in the Proverbs forged by rabbis or 'big men'. It seems to me it was christian women who toned down the extremist fundamentalism widespread in the western world, but do not get recognised for their long-standing struggles against the big men mafia. Emmeline Pankhurst was a Christian who reacted against the corrupt misogyny of Paul which the big men in the early church eagerly adopted for their personal worldly advantage. 'They are bigots', she taught. Just as when Christian women used male 'stage names' to get their message across, through a tyrannical misogynistic society, such as the arguing that Paul corrupted the message of Christ a.s.

[18:9] "Dost thou think that the People of the Cave and the Inscription were a wonder among Our Signs?"  I would therefore suggest 'Humanity First' to expand and make an association with Human Rights organisations such as: 

http://www.nspcc.org.uk/

i.e. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 

Doing so would be good Arabic [our religious/spiritual 'language'] as well as good English [secular/worldly language]. The child discipline technique proposed is neither good 'English' nor good 'Arabic' [infact it is not Arabic at all]. 

This is a serious suggestion that Humanity First should also venture into the field of human rights, prevention of cruelty, and promotion of kindness, women's rights organisations etc., and think of expanding to do the sort of work done by Amnesty International in a much better way. The teachings of the Qur'an, the example of Rahmatulil Aalameen, and the writings of the Promised Messiah a.s. set a higher example of human rights and moral values for us. 

I am copying ... on this because it is also a Tabligh concern, given that such emails as was sent around would strengthen the anti-Ahmadi cause [especially ex-Ahmadis who allege the Jama'at is run like a cult], and it is most unwise for a prominent official to send it around to people who might later on leave the Jama'at and use such an email as propaganda to charge the Jama'at with being run by persons with a medieval mindset, and cause untold damage to the message and mission of Islam and Ahmadiyyat. Thus the person who initiated this email should be given basic training on the subject of 'al arhaam' or 'ties of relationship' [4:1], and love for kindred in Islam.

However, it is not just damaging to our Tabligh efforts, it is first and foremost a Tarbiyyah issue. 

Wassalaam,  ------------------------ My genuine concern was dismissed off-hand, with an ahmadi stating: 

"...I just wanted to convey my views and express real disappointment that an office holder (who thought it necessary and appropriate, to send that message even to me, in the ..., in the capacity of an office holder in ...) would have such severe views and send such a diatribe - and seeks to clothe irrational argument in the garb of piety. It is extremism, plain and simple. It is overkill. Most of all it is sad."

------------------------

A senior nizam official (who had recently said to me when I asked him what the number of members are, that 'it is whatever we say it is') stated that it was a 'good sound response' from the above individual, so it was a case of defending senior official/s in their wrongdoing, as if such a blind defence of the wrongs of the nizam was a noble virtue in itself, even at the cost of violating foundational Islamic principles. I sent an email: 

-----------------------

Dear Brethren, 

Assalaamu 'alaikum w w 

Islam teaches us to utter 'Subhaanallaah' when we feel someone leading us has made an error in an aspect of the performance of Salaah. This means and implies that Allaah Ta'aala alone is absolutely holy and free from error or imperfection etc. Neither the one uttering Subhaanallaah is free from it, nor anyone else. 

This is the Islamic spirit behind my comments. If anyone feels they are inappropriate, you are entitled to feel this way; you too are human and permitted to err in your attitude, so I won't be pursuing you for an Inquisition of any kind for the rest of my life. 

In any case, it is nice to have a discourse with ... and ... who I used to talk with in the late 80's, and then a gap arose between us in the 90's. So, I'll refer to you as 'long lost friends'. 

In the wake of this exchange of views, in which there is no harm, I would like to recommend that the scope of 'Humanity First' be widened to include Human Rights issues which are covered by organisations such as the NSPCC, Amnesty, Women's Rights Organisations etc. So, something good can come out of this difference of opinion. And rather than go about explaining my reasoning/rationale again, I'll simply forward an email sent to another gentleman privately: ... 

----------------------

There was however a positive and satisfying response from a thinking rather than dogmatised (by spoon-fed blind faith to unconditionally obey the nizam) Ahmadi Muslim which pleased me, for it showed that he upheld humane Islamic principles rather than blindly defend the 'senior officials' and 'big men' of the nizam despite the glaring error of their ways. He responded to their awful jokes (which I have not included here) in a witty manner of his own which manifested his apparent exasperation at their continued obstinacy. I hope that some of those on the mailing list learnt something from it, and that some of the readers of this article might do so as well, InshaAllaah: 

----------------------

"aa surely this is an opportunity for community activity? in the old days we used to get together to burn witches and behead the dregs of society. Communal 'throw a child from a plane' day sounds like it could catch on, no? anybody know anyone in marketing? we could concentrate on the health benefits (children get fresh air, away from the computer etc etc). And there might be some academic evidence to support the fact that the kids need more discipline. According to (professor) mullah nasruddin: 

"It is easy to understand the truth of the recent report that says that the children of today cry more and behave worse than the children of a generation ago. Because they were not children, they were us.

ws"

---------------------------------- Tyranny:

[2:205] And when he is in authority, he runs about in the land to create disorder in it and destroy the crops and the progeny (of people); and Allah loves not disorder. Just one current concern (7th January 2019):

https://www.hrw.org/news/2019/01/06/thailand-allow-fleeing-saudi-woman-seek-refuge

Are 'muslims' witnesses over other people/s, or are they bearing witness against the atrocities of 'muslims'? And this isn't the first such incident. If 'muslims' do not 'Islamicise' themselves anytime soon, more muslims will lose faith and/or seek refuge elsewhere. Rather sadly, the email entitled 'Children Discipline' was sent to me by an 'ahmadi murabbi', and a  'Murabbi' is one who is supposed to nurture and train others in Islamic values and teachings in stages. If this reflects the condition of 'ahmadi murabbis' of our time, it makes one wonder who gave them such anti-Islamic 'training' in the first place? In any case, whoever had added me to the list must have removed me soon after the exchange on child abuse, as I don't recall receiving any further emails from there. 

[3:21] "Surely, those who deny the Signs of Allah and seek to kill the Prophets unjustly, and seek to kill such men as enjoin equity — announce to them a painful punishment."

'Boycott' (i.e. cutting off all relations with someone, even more so with a believer) is understood to be a form of 'killing', which one would expect to be well known to those who read Ahmadiyya Jama'at literature. 

[3:104] "And let there be among you a body of people who should invite to goodness, and enjoin equity and forbid evil. And it is they who shall prosper."

However, as Allah has warned us: 

[13:11] "... Surely, Allah changes not the condition of a people until they change that which is in their hearts. And when Allah decides to punish a people, there is no repelling it, nor have they any helper besides Him." Humanitarian Concerns:

[2:177] It is not righteousness that you turn your faces to the East or the West, but truly righteous is he who believes in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Book and the Prophets, and spends his money for love of Him, on the kindred and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and those who ask for charity, and for ransoming the captives; and who observes Prayer and pays the Zakat; and those who fulfil their promise when they have made one, and the patient in poverty and afflictions and the steadfast in time of war; it is these who have proved truthful and it is these who are the God-fearing.

[2:215] They ask thee what they shall spend. Say: ‘Whatever of good and abundant wealth you spend should be for parents and near relatives and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatever good you do, surely Allah knows it well.’

[4:36] And worship Allah and associate naught with Him, and show kindness to parents, and to kindred, and orphans, and the needy, and to the neighbour that is a kinsman and the neighbour that is a stranger, and the companion by your side, and the wayfarer, and those whom your right hands possess. Surely, Allah loves not the proud and the boastful,

[9:60] The alms are only for the poor and the needy, and for those employed in connection therewith, and for those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and for the freeing of slaves, and for those in debt, and for the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarer — an ordinance from Allah. And Allah is All-Knowing, Wise. [24:22] And let not those who possess wealth and plenty among you swear not to give aught to the kindred and to the needy and to those who have left their homes in the cause of Allah. Let them forgive and pass over the offence. Do you not desire that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful.

[30:38] So give to the kinsman his due, and to the needy, and to the wayfarer. That is best for those who seek the favour of Allah, and it is they who will prosper.

[36:47] And when it is said to them, ‘Spend out of that with which Allah has provided you,’ those who disbelieve say to those who believe, ‘Shall we feed him whom Allah would have fed, if He had so willed? You are but in manifest error.’

[76:8,9] And they feed, for love of Him, the poor, the orphan, and the prisoner,  Saying, ‘We feed you for Allah’s pleasure only. We desire no reward nor thanks from you. There are some muslim humanitarian aid organisations, such as: https://humanityfirst.org/home/ However, is the label true in practice, and is there an international muslim human rights organisation? There is an urgent need for one, as stated above.  An Ideal Society?

[67:1] Blessed is He in Whose hand is the kingdom, and He has power over all things; [67:2] Who has created death and life that He might try you — which of you is best in deeds; and He is the Mighty, the Most Forgiving. [67:3] Who has created seven heavens in harmony. No incongruity canst thou see in the creation of the Gracious God. Then look again: Seest thou any flaw? [67:4] Aye, look again, and yet again, thy sight will only return unto thee confused and fatigued.

Reflection on the universe around us shows that planetary bodies remain in their orbits revolving around a body or star with a more powerful gravitational force, thereby bringing about order in the universe. Those in positions of power and authority are likewise responsible for supporting those dependent upon them in various ways, rather than themselves be the cause of disorder when in authority. Advice to a muslim Empire:

"He (i.e. Hussain Kami, vice-consul of Turkey, who came to Qadian and met the Promised Messiah a.s. in 1897) had a private interview with me and requested me to make a particular supplication for the Sultan of Turkey and also desired to know what was destined for him for future in the heavenly decree. I told him in very clear words that:


the government of the Sultan was not in a good position and that through my vision I did not find his advisors in a good position either; and added my belief that in view of this the end would not be good. Unfortunately for the vice-consul, he resented my telling him this. I emphasised it in several ways that the Turkish Government was in default in the estimation of God in many respects and that God desires true righteousness, purity and sympathy with human beings. The present condition of Turkey calls for a complete demolition. Repent so that you might receive a good reward. I feel that he resented all this, which was again evidence that the Turkish Government was not in a good state. His going back speaking ill of me is further evidence of the coming decline.


I also explained my claim of being the Promised Messiah and Mahdi to him and told him that I had been raised by God and that it was nonsense to think as the general run of muslims think that a blood-thirsty Messiah or Mahdi will appear for the renaissance of Islam. I warned him that: God Almighty has determined that whoever, from among the muslims, keeps away from me will be cut off, whether he is a King or a commoner. I imagine that all this was most disagreeable to him but none of it was my own thinking. I told him only that which God had revealed to me…. I again wish to emphasise to the readers that I had no desire to meet the vice-consul…. It was at his insistence that I agreed to receive him in Qadian. But Allah the Glorious, a false utterance concerning Whom amounts to being stained with His curse, knows that He, Who knows the Unseen, had informed me in advance that the vice-consul was, by nature, insincere and so it came out." [Announcement of May 24, 1897, Majmu‘ah Ishtiharat, vol. 2, pp. 415–418; Tadhkirah p. 385-387]


(this article is under development) 


[19:76] Allah increases in guidance those who follow the guidance. [20:47] Peace be upon those who follow the guidance.

1 view