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Ahmadiyya Conflicts

Updated: Jun 19, 2020

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Ever Merciful

It would be appropriate to say a few words about conflicts, splits and off-shoots from the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at. There are a few recent minor ones, the most significant one being the so-called 'lahore ahmadiyya movement'. There is some Ahmadiyya Jama'at literature on the background and causes of the split which occurred in 1914, some of them being: 



https://www.alislam.org/library/book/nubuwwat-khilafat-prophethood-its-successorship/ I can say a few words about my impression of what happened, from what I have read. There were prophecies made in 1886 about a 'Promised Son' who was to be born within 9 years.  Prophecy about a Promised Son:

In the Announcement of February 20, 1886 made by this humble one…there is a prophecy of the birth of a righteous son possessing the qualities mentioned in the announcement.…Such a son, according to the divine promise, will surely be born within nine years, soon or late, but certainly within this period.”(Announcement of March 22, 1886, Majmu’ah Ishtiharat, Volume 1, Page 113)

After the announcement mentioned above, I supplicated again for further disclosure concerning this matter and it was disclosed to me today, April 8, 1886, by God Almighty that a son will be born very soon. Such period cannot exceed the interval of one pregnancy. Thus, it is obvious that a son will probably be born soon, or certainly in the next pregnancy, but it has not been disclosed whether the one who will be born soon is the same Promised Son or whether he will be born at some other time within the term of nine years.” (Announcement of Aprill 8, 1886, Majmu’ah Ishtiharat, Volume 1, Page 117)

He was born on 12th January 1889 and named Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad (r.a.)  It was obvious that such a 'Promised Son' was to be of the physical as well as spiritual seed of the Promised Messiah a.s., and not of his spiritual seed alone, i.e. a genetically unrelated follower of his teachings. I wasn't there, but it appears that the senior members of the Anjuman saw Mirza Mahmud r.a. growing up, learning and getting involved in religious affairs, and this appears to have become the cause of alarm for them during the Khilafat of Maulana Nuruddin, Khalifatul Masih I r.a. They would have perceived that he was the promised son and may well become the Khalifa after the demise of Khalifa I r.a.

It reminds me of the envy of the brothers of Yusuf a.s., though there may have been 'reasons' for it in the minds of a few of the 'big men' of the Anjuman, in that he was young and inexperienced. However, it would have been wiser for them to adhere to the principles of Islam and thought of offering him sound advice based on their acquired knowledge and experience (in their own estimation), rather than thinking negatively on the basis of worldly considerations, and take matters into their own hands, rather than unite with the true believers, and pray and trust in Allah s.w.t.

In the final analysis, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at progressed during the second Khilafat, rather than suffer decline, and the 'lahori party' diminished in comparison. Khalifa II r.a. had been informed via revelation:

"I will exalt those who follow thee above those who reject faith, until the Day of Resurrection" [Ru'ya Kushf Syeddina Mahmud] 

And so it shall be, Insha'Allaah, on the condition that the 'followers' remain true to the correct teachings and right guidance, and not deviate to wage an all-out war of falsehood and deception like mirza tahir sahib had done, and as maulvi muhammad ali sahib had also done by means of various sorts of smokescreens. And such an exaltation is not only the spiritual exaltation granted by Allah, by also by means of ideological supremacy due to having truthful evidence and more powerful reasons and logical arguments.

Those who had set up the 'lahore ahmadiyya movement' (lam) in opposition to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at appear to have begun to undermine the status of a Khalifa in the time of Khalifa I r.a., and that of the Promised Messiah a.s. later on, claiming he was simply a Mujaddid or Reformer, rather than a Prophet, so as to diminish the role, status and influence of Mirza Mahmud r.a. 

However, there was a promise granted to the sincere members (in any group of Ahmadis) by means of divine revelation: 

"I shall safeguard all those who dwell in this house, except such as think highly of themselves out of arrogance" 

The house is the spiritual house (i.e. Ahmadiyya Jama'at) of the Promised Messiah a.s., who observed: Thinking well of oneself can be proper or improper. An instance of thinking well of oneself properly, was the case of Moses a.s. The contrary instance was that of Pharaoh [Nuzool ul Masih, p. 24; Al Hakam, Vol VI, No. 17, May 10, 1902, p. 10; Tadhkirah p. 504, 505].  One might ask why Khalifa II r.a. didn't point out in his books about the conflict that the underlying reason for the opposition was due to the prophecy of the promised son to be born within nine years. It may be that he avoided stating it as he would then have had to make a claim that he was the one, which he didn not have any authority for at the time. And Allah knows best. A Deceptive Liar Exposed by Truthful Testimony:

However, on 19th November 2018, an official 'lam' account on twitter (@virtualmosque) stated a truth when questioned about a false allegation against the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at by a supposed shi'ite imam known as imam tawhidi (@imamofpeace), accusing Ahmadis of engaging in violence against other muslims like some sunnis and shi'ites do. The picture he tweeted can be seen in this link: 


It was of course false and mischievous to include Ahmadi Muslims in the pic., with the Ahmadi showing hostility towards both sunni and shi'ite, and the sunni and shi'ite only showing enmity towards the Ahmadi, but not to each other. Is this the reality? I am aware that some ahmadis did some wrong against non-ahmadi students at the train station in Rabwah Pakistan in 1974. What I have heard is that the non-ahmadi students had provoked the ahmadis at the station by 'teasing' Ahmadi women, and the ahmadis reacted to the provocation contrary to the teachings of Islam and Ahmadiyyat. Rather than exercising the patient self-restraint that is emphasised in our teachings, they physically beat the students. I have heard a claim that this provocation was pre-planned by the government, and ahmadis fell into the trap. This seems to find support in the fact that Ahmadi Muslims had been declared non-Muslim by the 'Muslim World League' in April 1974 in Makkah, and a plot might well have been hatched. This needs to be verified, but whether or not this is true, ahmadis should learn from their mistake, and be cautious and exercise as much restraint as possible, as all wise people should, and not make matters worse for themselves, whether provoked verbally, however rude this might be, or physically. In any case, it is reported that they adopted the resolution that:

"Qadianism or Ahmadiyyat: It is a subversive movement against Islam and the Muslim world, which falsely and deceitfully claims to be an Islamic sect; who under the guise of Islam and for the sake of mundane interests contrives and plans to damage the very foundations of Islam."

It didn't start off like that though. So, it may be wise to reconsider the decision in the light of fresh evidence.

In any case, it is said that there was gross exaggeration to the point of falsehood by the pakstani media and government, claiming there was grievous bodily harm etc., which was untrue according to my research so far, and led to murder and mayhem in pakistan, with ahmadis been shown the consequences of reacting angrily and disproportionately to mischievous verbal provocation. This is an incident of concern in the 130 year history of Ahmadiyya Movement that needed tarbiyyat (training) of ahmadis in proper Islamic values on when and when not to physically respond. The remarks by mirza masroor in 2012 endorsing the pope's comment about punching someone who offends being normal, serves to undermine any tarbiyyat (training) of ahmadis in the correct Islamic teachings. The unacceptable reaction resulted in disorder. Ignoring the ignorant satanic incitements would have increased the honour of Ahmadiyya Movement as being the true Servants of the Gracious One, for lasting honour is in righteousness. The events are reported in Ahmadiyya literature as follows:

‘In the middle of 1974 they devised a plan which was aimed at provoking anger and rancour against the Ahmadiyya Community which unfortunately succeeded only too well in its immediate purpose. An incident was staged at the Rabwah railway station, which was so managed that a party of students who belonged to an organisation bitterly hostile to the Movement suc­ceeded in provoking a number of Ahmadis, who happened to be present at the railway station when the train carrying the students arrived, into a conflict in which slight injuries were inflicted on some of the students in the party. At the next stop of the train, preparations had already been made to receive the students as “heroes” who had suffered grievous injuries in the cause of Islam at the hands of the members of the Community. Fiery speeches were made and the utterly false and mislead­ing accounts of the incident were further embroidered in the press next morning, with the addition of such false, fictitious and horrify­ing details as that the students had been cruelly maimed, that some of them had had their tongues cut out and that others had had their genitals cut off. This sent a wave of horror throughout the province and all sorts of premeditated atrocities were let loose against the members of the Movement. In the inquiry subsequently conducted by a Judge of the Lahore High Court into the incident, it was established by the medical evidence produced that all the injuries alleged to have been received by some of the students were simple bruises and scars and not a single one of them was grievous."

‘… in not a single instance did the police or the civil authorities intervene to extend their protection to the victims of violence, no investigation was made into any of the numerous outrages committed against the persons and properties of the Ahmadis, no one was arrested or tried in respect of any of them, and no compensation was awarded to any Ahmadi for the loss inflicted upon him. In fact there were several instances in which the police openly and actively encouraged the unruly and disorderly elements to do their worst.’ [Renaissance of Islam,  Muhammad Zafrulla Khan.]

Thus it is most unwise and irresponsible not to advise people to restrain themselves from responding physically to verbal provocation and incitement, as the consequences can be dire.

So, whilst tawhidi did tell a manifest lie, apparently invented by himself (he is more than welcome to correct me on this), it does however depict the sad reality about nations having nuclear weapons. I wonder whether the Syrian conflict has been one factor leading to the recent alarming news about pulling out from a nuclear weapons treaty:


The consequences can be dire for human kind if a cold war resumes. Khalifatul Masih III r.a. had warned:

"The Promised Messiah a.s. also prophesied that a third world war of even bigger dimensions would follow the Second. The two opposing camps will clash with such suddenness that every one will be caught unawares. Death and destruction will rain from the sky and fierce flames shall engulf the earth. The colossus of modern civilization will tumble to the ground. Both the communist and the opposing blocks will perish in the process. Russia and its satellites on the one hand and the US and its allies on the other, shall be destroyed, their might broken, their civilization ruined and their system shattered. The survivors shall stand aghast and amazed at the tragedy." 

[Source: https://www.alislam.org/library/book/message-peace-word-warning/]

If this prophecy is not prevented from being fulfilled, by means of persuading nuclear armed nations to denuclearise, we may have the scenario that was witnessed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1948, if not worse. I remember admonishing a University of Leeds Medical School Pathology lecturer around 1988 for making light of Japanese civilian suffering by referring to their 'involuntary contributions' to cancer research, upon which he realised his grave error and immediately said 'Point Taken' in the lecture theatre. I may have had to suffer the consequences of rebuking him publicly, especially when anti-muslim sentiments were widespread due to the kidnapping of Terry Waite, the death-sentence by Khomeini, and the reaction to the attitude of Saddam Hussain etc., but his dangerous remarks had been uttered in public, and I hope other people also realise the need to actively and strongly discourage what may cause long-term suffering to the survivors on our shared planet earth, which at least some students seemed to have understood at the time. It may have been considered that my remarks were uttered out of racism or religious prejudice, but let's be honest, even if I didn't have any love at all for Japanese civilians, would I not have any love for my self and my own people, who would also suffer the consequences of a nuclear World War III? I don't think I am the sociopath here. I did, and still do, have the best interests of mankind at heart. I subsequently became friendly towards him as he had not argued the point out of egotism, but had openly accepted that I was right. No people should have to go through it; never again.

An ahmadi (@nasir9002) tweeted (6th October 2018) in response to tawhidi's accusation as follows:

2:38 PM - 6 Oct 2018: "How can you name your self as 'Imam of Peace' when you promote this type of memes with weapons. Also Ahmadis has never been part of any violence rather biggest promoters of peace."

imam tawhidi (@imamofpeace) responded:

6:32 PM - 6 Oct 2018: "That’s a lie. Ahmadis have massacred Lahore Ahmadis, only 500 families of them exist."

An official 'lahore ahmadiyya movement' account (@virtualmosque) remarked:

1:29 PM - 19 Nov 2018: "This is entirely incorrect…’500 families’? We have hundreds of organisations all over the World. The other Ahmadi group have not massacred anyone" Peace doesn't flourish in the world without establishing a process for implementing justice, and telling mischievous lies against an innocent people leads to injustice/s against them. Instead of speaking out against the persecution of ahmadis, tawhidi accused ahmadis of being guilty of persecuting others, yet he claims to be an embodiment of peace:

[2:11] "And when it is said to them: ‘Create not corruption on the earth,’ they say: ‘We are only promoters of peace.’ Beware! it is surely they who create corruption, but they do not perceive (it)."

[6:112-3] "And in like manner have We made for every Prophet an enemy, shayateen (devils) from among men and Jinn. They suggest one to another gilded speech in order to deceive — and if thy Lord had (enforced) His will, they would not have done it; so leave them alone with that which they fabricate — And in order that the hearts of those who believe not in the Hereafter may incline thereto and that they may be pleased therewith and that they may continue to earn what they are earning."

[7:17]  He (Iblis) said: ‘Now, since Thou hast adjudged me as lost, I will assuredly lie in wait for them on Thy straight path. ‘Then will I surely come upon them from before them and from behind them and from their right and from their left, and Thou wilt not find most of them to be grateful.’

Going by the false label of 'imam of peace', he ought not to tell blatantly mischievous lies in order to mislead his twitter followers, this time into imagining that ahmadis are not peaceful in reality. But thanks to the individual/s behind the 'lam' account for affirming a truth rather than refuse to do so out of any ill-feeling there might still be towards Khalifa II r.a. This ahmadi muslim act of affirming the truth when asked to give testimony, rather than concealing it, reminds me of some revelations of the Promised Messiah a.s. which appear to be concerning some of them [Tadhkirah p. 514]:

December 13, 1900 [Urdu]: There are our pure members in Lahore. They should be informed. They are made of fine clay. Doubt will be removed but the clay will remain. In the context of the acceptance of revelation the weakest was the maulavi. All maulavis will be exposed. [Arabic] [I am Allah the Bountiful. I shall certainly stand with My Messenger.] [al-Hakam, vol. 4, no. 45, December 17, 1900, p. 2]

[Urdu] We have pure friends in Lahore. Doubt has arisen but the clay is fine; doubt will be removed but the clay will remain. [al-Hakam, vol. 4, no. 29, August 17, 1902, p. 12]

And Allah knows best how and when these hope-giving revelations will be fulfilled. I understand that clay (Urdu: mitti) symbolises humility, indicating that they acted on the relevant admonishments to the members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in sincere faith, as at least one of them has recently demonstrated by upholding the truth about there being no massacre by us. I don't know about their numbers however, so I can't comment on that part of their tweet. The 1988 Mubahila & Warning

Some/many ahmadis have in mind the claimed fulfilment of a mubahila challenge (prayer duel) issued by mirza tahir sahib to the 'leaders of disbelief' on 10th June 1988.  Here are copies of the mubahila in Urdu and English in which he specifies those who are included in the mubahila challenge: 



The mubahila proposed the following prayer: 

"Let us (the two parties to this Mubahala) join in this prayer: "0 our Lord, All Powerful, Almighty God. Thou knowest the Seen and the Unseen, swearing by Thy Majesty and Glory, we supplicate that whichever of us is right and true according to Thy judgement in the aforementioned controversy, may Thou shower Thine choicest blessings on them in this life and in the life to come. Remove all their troubles and show such profound signs in their favour as make it manifest to the whole world that Thou art on their side and hold them dear. Fill their houses with blessings upon blessings. Cause heavenly MUBAHALA peace to descend upon them. Make them Thine and let the world remain in no ambiguity as to which side Thou art on; and which has the cover of Thine benign and powerful protection. 0, Our Lord! Whichever of us in Thy sight are liars and fabricators, let Thy wrath descend upon THEM within one year. May Thou inflict such disgraceful and tormenting punishment upon them that people should witness their debasement and utter destruction. Let Thy wrath descend upon them in diverse ways and let the criminals be punished and exposed in an exemplary manner so that the world bear witness that they were recipients of Thy wrath. 0 Almighty God do this so that: RIGHT may clearly be distinguished from WRONG and the Difference between TRUTH and FALSEHOOD may become MANIFEST."

On 12th August 1988, he warned that 'a party among them', would 'definitely' be punished, and claimed that this was made on the basis of a dream he had seen, rather than actual divine revelation. However, I am yet to see the nizam claim fulfilment of the prophecy of divine punishment for 'a party among them' for the past ~30 years since it was first made. This link briefly informs us who was included and who was not (the detailed list is in the mubahila itself): 


Relevant excerpts: 

"On Friday, 10th June 1988, Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih IV, revived the challenge given by the Promised Messiah and gave an open invitation of Mubahala to General Zia-ul-Haq President of Pakistan, his ministers and the Judges of the Shariat Court and all the Maulvis who have been playing prominent roles in organising opposition against the Ahmadiyya Muslims Community having rejected the claim of the Founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, as the Promised Messiah and Mahdi, and continued inciting their followers with lies and fabricated allegations. ...  Huzur reminded that although we are praying that their curses should rebound on them, this should only be for their leaders who are instigating and misleading the public by their lies. We should not pray that Allah's curse befall upon non-Ahmadis in general, rather we should pray that Allah may save and guide them to the right path. He prayed that may God Almighty provide a befitting retort to those who hurled curses against the Jamaat Ahmadiyya and its Founder in such a manner that the world at large can clearly discern truth from falsehood. May God, once again show His mighty sings in favour of the truth."  He had stated: "It means the people we are talking about who we have challenged to a prayer duel, unfortunately they will now see the wrath of Allah. Otherwise I would not have received the message from Allah the Almighty (in a dream): "History repeats itself, you will not see any change, the wrongdoers will be punished." The decree of God will surely catch them and surely punish them. This punishment has become their destiny and definitely a party amongst them - not all of them, but some of them - will now become a sign." [Friday Sermon 12 August 1988]

It appears that the party of the leaders of disbelief are still alive and kicking, and even trying to frame new laws against Ahmadis. This video containing clips also shows that he had mentioned the punishment of a 'qaum', i.e. a people: 


The reference to 'lekhu' was actually from a poem a few years before the mubahila, and I don't recall mirza tahir sahib referring to it during the mubahila and warning speeches etc. The claim of fulfilment is only made about one person, general zia, who was an individual and not 'a party' among 'the leaders of disbelief', so it becomes another 'numbers issue'. This being the case, the only rational conclusion, unless evidence can be presented to make a claim that 'a party among them' were subjected to some similar 'divine wrath' as claimed about general zia within the period of one year specified in the mubahila challenge, is that it was a co-incidence which is seen as fulfilment due to 'aqeedat' (which may be seen by some as 'blind faith') or 'confirmation bias'; or one might also consider the possibility that the earnest prayer of Ahmadi Muslims all around the world against general zia, due to his wrongdoing, not directly related to the mubahila, was answered, but only Allah knows about this. He used to commonly issue warnings from the platform of the institution of caliphate anyway. Whilst his 'fiery style' is not as common these days, it hasn't completely disappeared, as the occasional threat is still issued.  Khilafat or Mujaddid?  Someone may raise the question as to how another Prophet can arise if Ahmadis believe their chain of Khilafat will last till the day of judgement. Keep in mind that a standard view of the Ahmadiyya Jama'at on the interpretation of Khaataman-Nabiyyeen (Seal of the Prophets) is that the door to subbordinate prophets will continue to remain open till the day of  judgement, and that promise of Khilafat in [24:55] is conditional on true uncorrupted faith and corresponding righteous deeds: 

"Say: "Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger." But if you turn away, he is responsible for what he is charged with and you are responsible for what you are charged with and if you obey him, you will be rightly guided and the Messenger is only responsible for the plain delivery of the Message. Allah has promised to those among you who believe and do good works that He will surely make them successors (khalifas) in the earth, as He made successors (khalifas) from among those who were before them and that He will surely establish for them their religion which He has chosen for them." (Quran 24:54-55)

Khalifa II r.a. stated that a Mujaddid arises after Khilafat-e-Haqqa ceases [citation needed]. The belief that Qudrat-e-Thaaniyya (second manifestation) refers to the continuous chain of Khilafat is an acceptable interpretation, but it may just as well also apply to the coming of a Mahdi/Messiah or Promised Son/Reformer after Khilafat-e-Haqqa (True Khilafat) ceases. 

The view that the silence of the Prophet s.a. at the end of the hadith concerning Khilafat 'alaa min Haajin Nubuwwah (i.e. Khilafat on the precepts of Prophethood) implies that this second phase of Khilafat will never cease, is likewise, also an interpretation, viz:

"Prophethood shall remain among you as long as God wills. Then khilafat on the pattern of prophethood will commence and remain as long as He wills. A corrupt monarchy shall then follow and it shall remain as long as God wills. There shall then be a tyrannical despotism which shall remain as long as God wills. Then once again khilafat will emerge on the precept of prophethood." (Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal) It could also conceivably be interpreted to mean that after this second phase of Khilafat, a new Messiah or Promised Son will appear according to prophecies, after the existing khilafat deviates from the right path, and ceases to be true and rightly guided Khilafat. The suggested view that a Khalifa can be made a Prophet might seem to be possible at first sight, as promoted by a nizam which wants to consolidate it's own authority, but it appears more likely to me that a Reformer or Prophet appears after deviation from the right path by an elected Khalifa and/or the other members of the Jama'at. And Allah knows best.  The following dream of Khalifa II r.a. supports the view that another Promised Son/Reformer would appear after Ahmadis in authority will have misled the members of the Jama'at. It is at first sight not clear whether this will be after some centuries or 127 years, but he links 127 years with another dream in which he sees himself (i.e. a Promised Son who would be like him in some ways) inviting people to Tawheed (Monotheism). This appears to be the 1944 dream after which he made his claim to being the Promised Son who was to be born within 9 years. The dream is translated in the article entitled 'Prophecies and Dreams' under the heading "Dream 253 (January 1944)". 

Though I have no direct personal connection or contact with the owners of the website on which it appears, they are Ahmadi Muslims (Mirza Rafi Ahmad Sahib was a good man). I'm giving a link to their translation (which appears to be good enough) of the dream, as I have not done a translation of it myself. 


As it is to be expected with regards to matters relating to the unseen future which is best known by Allah s.w.t. alone, Ahmadis of our Jama'at differ somewhat on interpretation and expectation. Some say Ahmadiyya Khilafat will continue to be rightly-guided till (near) the ends of days, when a messiah will descend just before judgement day. Some say a prophet may come some as the door to ummati Prophets remains open [7:35, 4:70]. Some say that it depends, as rightly-guided Khilafat is a conditional promise according to [24:55]. Khalifa II r.a. stated that a Mujaddid comes when Khilafat-e-Haqqa ceases, and there are dreams of Khalifa II r.a. stating that he will return to the world when Ahmadis will have deviated. This obviously means someone like him would appear as a spiritual son, for there can't be a literal son now anyway.

Some would think that such a Promised Son would be a member of the family of the Promised Messiah a.s., whilst others think that as prophecies may be symbolic, it could be complete outsider to the genetic lineage of the Promised Messiah a.s. who would still be regarded as being of his spiritual seed in that he will be acting on the best of his teachings. Such a person may be African, Indonesian, Western, Arab, or an India/Pakistani etc., for Allah knows best where to place His message [6:124].

Members of the (so-called) 'lahore ahmadiyya movement' (lam) were expecting a Mujaddid in this 15th century of Islam (which began in 1979 CE), but these ahmadis now also appear to be open to the possibility that a Mujaddid may not come this century, on the basis that the Promised Messiah a.s. is referred to as Dhul Qarnain, which means he might be the Mujaddid of the 14th as well as the 15th century after Hijra, and that there is even the possibility of two Mujaddideen in one century, as they claim has happened once before. Ahmadis of both groups can be reminded of this verse:

[60:8] Allah forbids you not, respecting those who have not fought against you on account of your religion, and who have not driven you forth from your homes, that you be kind to them and act equitably towards them; surely Allah loves those who are equitable.

It can be seen as being due to the influence of the reforms of the Promised Messiah a.s. that the members of the two groups didn't fight each other except verbally, and both groups have spoken in favour of peace and opposed evils such as terrorism. Also, after the time of the Promised Messiah a.s., both groups have disregarded the incorrect label of 'sahih' on bukhari by questioning the age of marriage of Aisha r.a., as well as by rejecting the traditional muslim teaching of stoning adulterers to death, and moved closer to the teachings of the Holy Qur'an, as became evident from a proper study of it, a process we ought to continue to take further, InshaAllah.

Neither of the two groups officially state that Ahmad a.s. someone knew everything there is for us to know, or that he could not possibly err in interpretation, or never make an erroneous statement in haste or otherwise due to a lapse of memory, or that he had comprehensively pondered over all relevant verses on every issue, even if such erroneous attitudes might exist among ahmadis. Had the Promised Messiah a.s. not have had to deal with continuous and extreme hostility, especially from the ahlul-hadith mullahs and their followers, he might have been able to introduce us to more reforms in his time,. However, it appears that he was forced to spend much of his time clarifying his views on the meaning of 'seal of prophethood' and the 'death of Jesus a.s.' in various ways. So, as only the Qur'an is beyond error, the door to ijtihaad should never be closed, as then there would have been no need to urge us to keep pondering over the Word of the All-Knowing Allah, which is the only Perfect Book [2:2] that is beyond error [4:82].

This being the case, how can it be right to hate each other for differences of opinion, when the process of dialogue can lead to progress in knowledge if the exchange is done in good faith, and we keep in mind the instruction to refer matters of dispute to Allah s.w.t. first and foremost, by which is understood to mean pondering further over the Qur'an, which is Al-Furqaan (The Discriminator/Criterion) and 'Ahsanul Hadith' (The Best Narrative), doing so thoroughly, for the first principle of understanding the Qur'an is by means of other relevant verses and the Book as a whole, and then to see whether we have any reliable and trustworthy reports from the time of the Holy Prophet s.a. which can be critically assessed for consistency with the Qur'an, and then used to understand the issue in a way such as will not contradict any single other verse of it, or other ahadith already accepted as reliable after a similarly thorough critical evaluation.

As the unseen future essentially remains unknown to humans, what we can say is that we should make sure we keep ourselves on the right path acting on the best of the teachings of Islam and Ahmadiyyat, and if something happens other than the status quo, or what we were expecting or assuming, we should nevertheless be ready and willing to accept new truths which may and probably will be, contrary to at least some of our previous views, and change our thoughts/ways accordingly. Conditions for Khalifat-e-Raashidah: 

The question arises as regards when would one have to decide between whether the errors in the writings/speeches of a Khalifa are due to his having gone astray, or are human errors which we can live with whilst emphasising the supreme status of the Qur'an, followed by the established Sunnah, for Tawheed necessarily includes the concept of the human fallibility of Prophets as well as Khalifas. In my opinion, this will depend on the amount of errors and the extent of the deviation. The Qur'an states that divinely established and supported Khilafat is conditional on true faith and righteous deeds [24:55] and leads to peace after fear, and the establishment of tawheed and eradication of shirrk. So, if shirrk, falsehoods, and fear due to injustice/cruelty accumulate far beyond what is acceptable within the scope of human errors by a rightly guided but fallible Khalifa, then we need to start praying for the right guidance and reform of the Community, as well as for the Ummah of Muhammad s.a. as a whole, and for various other people/s on earth.

As the label of Khilafat-e-Haqqa or Khilafate-Raashida, and with it the doctrine of divine appointment and divine guidance, will have become false, and also deceptive, it becomes a risk to the spread of true faith and righteous deeds, similar to the manifest risk of corruption from the false label of 'sahih' on books of hadith. However, the verses surrounding [24:55], both before and after, mention obedience to Allah and Messenger s.a. for it is a requirement of true Khilafat, hence Qur'an and Sunnah will remain of paramount importance, and neither an Ummati Prophet nor a Khalifa have authority over and above these main sources of Islam. Allah looks at the heart, and does not have a regard for false labels. Allah s.w.t. says:

  [61:2,3] O ye who believe! why do you say what you do not do? Most hateful is it in the sight of Allah that you say what you do not do.

When a situation of corruption has arisen, it is a time to pray and wait for a second manifestation of divine power in the form of a divinely appointed reformer, and the following words of the Promised Messiah a.s. may be to our benefit and guidance in this regard:  "So, while waiting for the second Manifestation of His Power, you all together keep yourselves busy praying. And let a community of righteous people, one and all, in every country keep themselves busy in prayers so that the Second Manifestation may descend from the Heaven and shows you that your God is such Mighty God. And keep it in mind that the time of your death is near and you do not know at what hour that moment would come. ... God desires to draw all those people whether they belong to Europe or Asia who inhabit various habitations of the world and who have virtuous nature to the Unity of God and unite men, His servants, in one Faith. This is the very purpose of God to achieve which I have been sent to the world. So you, too, pursue this end, but with kindness, moral probity and by stressing on prayers. And till that time that someone, inspired by God with the Holy Spirit, is raised by Him, all of you should work in harmony after me." [Al Wasiyyat/The Will, p. 8,9]

By following this instruction, even if someone has developed an unfounded fear and come to a mistaken conclusion for whatever reason, such as being ill-informed, mis-informed, or dis-informed of the facts, resulting from the bias or hatred of opponents etc., that the conditions for true Khilafat [24:55] are not being met, there won't be a genuine cause for concern that any conflict within the community would worsen rather than be resolved. This way, any issues will be resolved calmly and objectively, rather than hastily, on the basis of subjective fears and emotions, InshaAllaah. However, it is probably more likely in such a case that the wrongdoing people would be inclined to be more dogmatic and emotionally insist on the label of 'caliphate', due to years/decades of indoctrination.

(This article is being developed)

[19:76] Allah increases in guidance those who follow the guidance. [20:47] Peace be upon those who follow the guidance.

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